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Aldehyde Dehydrogenase ( ALDH )

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase ( ALDH ) are also a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation or dehydrogenation of aldehydes. They belong to the group of enzymes that are located in the cell, in different parts- the cytosol, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. It is also proven that there are several different forms of this enzyme! They have been classified as:

  • Class 1 (cytosolic)
  • Class 2 (mitochondrial)
  • Class 3 (tumor and other isozymes)

There is no doubt- aldehyde dehydrogenases have broad substrate specificity. Oxidation of aldehydes is considered to be generally a detoxification reaction because it is based on removing the electrophilic products of alcohol oxidation.

Function of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases

Several researches done in the past have proven that Aldehyde Dehydrogenases are able to oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. It is important to know that aldehydes are substances formed during the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, biogenic amines, vitamins, and steroids. It is also proven that a large number of xenobiotics can generate aldehydes during their biotransformation. They are also highly reactive electrophilic compounds that interact with different chemical groups and these effects vary from:

  • physiologic and therapeutic to
  • Cytotoxic
  • Genotoxic
  • mutagenic or carcinogenic

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